Chrome uses the Window's computer's Internet Options security settings for deciding when to pass NTLM/Kerberos windows authentication tokens to a web site. To ensure your users are not prompted for credentials when accessing a SharePoint site in Chrome, you can do the following:
Open Internet Option and select the Security tab, then select Trusted Sites and then configure the zone to automatically authenticate as in the image.
This can also be configured via a GPO. "Computer Configuration" => "Windows Components" => "Internet Explorer" => "Internet Control Panel" => "Security Page" => "Locked-Down Trusted Sites". Don't forget to add your intranet domains to the trusted sites as well. Otherwise the GPO will be useless.